Hello everyone! I’m Vanheuang Phommadeechack. Student ID: 6436660
I will answer and discuss questions below: How epidemiology of vectors improve vector control? (Give example and discuss)
Epidemiology is the study of diseases to investigate how, when and why the disease is occured. The information can be used to control the spread of the disease and prevent future outbreaks. In terms of entomology, epidemiology of vectors also important for prevention and vector controlling programs and understand vector capacity, the dynamic of vector population and disease. There are several factors that affect the current status of vector-borne diseases such as the Environmental factor, human, meteorological (temperature, humidity, visibility, and wind speed), seasonal and climate change.
For example the study that conducted by Tamaree et all (2021), they study a spatio-temporal analysis of scrub typhus and murine typhus in Laos, which we know these diseases are causes of febrile illness. Scrub typhus (ST) is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted by the bite of chiggers mites. Murine typhus (MT) is caused by Rickettsia typhi and is transmitted by fleas. Both diseases are neglected with under-estimated burdens on health and little is known about the temporal dynamics of these diseases, and the influence of climatic and environmental factors
In this study, they investigated individual-level demographic and behavioral characteristics of patients; spatial and temporal distributions; meteorological correlates of the temporal patterns; and environmental and geographic correlates of the spatiotemporal distributions.
The result shows that ST was highly occur during the wet season between July-September compared to the dry season whilst MT peaked in the dry season. ST incidence to fluctuations in relative humidity whereas MT was linked to variation in temperature. In addition, patients with ST infection were more likely to come from villages with higher levels of surface flooding with the patient-related or contact with the rice field.
The data suggest that the risk of disease will be increase as cities expand. They also suggested that the incidence and spatial distribution of both MT and ST will increase. According to the information of the distribution or the epidemiology of MT and ST, we will know the time period of disease outbreak and know the dynamic of the disease and vector … in Vientiane, which very helpful for using as the reference information for disease prevention and vector controlling program to reduce the risk of disease transmission.
Reference :Roberts T et all. A spatio-temporal analysis of scrub typhus and murine typhus in Laos; implications from changing landscapes and climate. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Aug 25. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009685.
Thank you very much.