1. How the mosquito can transmit the pathogen?
The transmission of the pathogen by mosquito vectors can occur in 3 ways during the activity or life cycle of the mosquito such as lay eggs, biting, and mating. The first one is Vertical Transmission, which occurs when the female mosquito passes the pathogen to its embryo. And made the next generation of mosquitoes get infected in the male and female mosquitoes. The second is Horizontal transmission, which occurs following the infection of a human or animal host by the bite of an infected mosquito. After intrinsic incubation, the human or animal host will become a viraemic host, and wait for a new mosquito to take a blood meal to lead to an infected mosquito. The last one is Venereal transmission. It occurs when an infected male mosquito that infect by vertical transmission, mating with a female mosquito. The pathogen can be directly transmitted to female mosquitoes. Both males and females can be infected.
2. What tool and how to determine malaria transmission?
Malaria transmission has 6 main parameters that use to determine coupled with vector surveillance which is the tool to identify the response of the vector in each specific place and time or the pattern of the vector transmission :
Abundance; the number of mosquitoes (A large number of mosquitoes increases the chances of spreading the disease)
Host-feeding pattern and proportion; the mosquito prefers to bite on animals or humans
Longevity; to know how long the vector’s life cycle
Reproductive capacity; the reproduction rate of the population of mosquito vector or the number of generation
Distribution; the distribution of mosquitoes at that time and place
Vector competence; the capacity of the mosquito can transfer the parasite to another host and the susceptibility of vector
Name: Vanutsarin Khongsrisak ID: 6536456