1. How the mosquito can transmit the pathogen?
When a mosquito is prevalent and also in the path of its life cycle, it can spread a pathogen in three different ways: (a) Vertical transmission, which often happens when a virus is infected the female mosquitoes and when laying eggs, cause have viruses infection to their offspring.; (b) Horizontal transmission, occurs when the female mosquito feeds on the blood of the host virus. The mature pathogen within the external incubation is complete. The mosquitoes then bites the new host and transmits pathogenic germs to that new host. After the intrinsic incubation, host will develop the infection and wait for the new mosquito to feed on its blood and It will cycle through the life cycles.
And (c) Venereal Transmission, occurs when an infected male mosquito by mating with a female mosquito. This make it possible for the pathogens to be transmitted directly to the female mosquitoes. Therefore, it can infect both men and women.
2. What tool and how to determine the malaria transmission?
Vector capacity, incidence rate ratio, and entomological inoculation rate are the tools used to determine malaria transmission. For vector capacity can be describes and defined the relationship between vectors and their hosts. There are 6 main determinants:
2.1 Abundance is the information of the mosquitoes as population, rate of infection.
2.2 Host preference and host-feeding patterns and proportion are the mosquitoes take a blood meal from host like human or animals.
2.3 Reproductive capacity is malaria population growth rates.
2.4 Longevity is the age of the mosquitoes.
2.5 Dispersal or distribution in vector is the number of malaria cases.
2.6 Vector competence; extrinsic incubation period of the pathogen in the vector is the propensity of a mosquito to transmit a pathogen to another host or vector.
Name: Piyathida Thapradit Student ID: 6536458