1. How the mosquito can transmit the pathogen?
Ans There are many infectious diseases that are transmitted to human by insect vector such as mosquito which cause malaria, dengue and zika. For malaria disease which normally occurs when an infected female mosquito bite human then go into asexual stage in human and go into sexual stage in mosquito to develop oocyst and releases sporozoite to human so that it can recycle over again. There are 3 ways for mosquito to transmit to the host, as following (1) Vertical Transmission: Female mosquito pass the parasite to their offspring by passing to the surface of eggs and in the embryo. (2) Horizontal Transmission: It occurs when female mosquito bites host1 who has the parasite then transmits to host2 so that other female mosquito could get the parasite via biting infected host. (3) Venereal Transmission: The parasite can transmit from infected male mosquito to female mosquito by matting process so that both male and female mosquitos can be infected.
2. What tool and how to determine the malaria transmission?
Ans The useful tool for indicating the malaria transmission would be vector surveillance because it monitors the factors that relating to malaria, as following.
(1) Abundance: To determine the population of mosquito which is a vector for malaria disease in each area that may has risk for causing the malaria disease outbreak.
(2) Host preference and host-feeding patterns and proportion: To determine the behavior of mosquito that prefer to bite human and animal and also collect the data about how many time that mosquito biting the hosts.
(3) Reproductive capacity: To determine how capable of mosquito that can mate and produce the next generation of its offspring.
(4) Longevity: To determine the mosquito’s life span which is based on the species, sex and biological and physical conditions.
(5) Dispersal or distribution: To determine the data about the population of majors anopheline species in each month, year and area by reporting as a graph for example.
(6) Vector competence: To determine the ability of mosquito that being as a disease vector and influence transmitted the parasite to host. And also determine probability of infected mosquito could generate a new infection when it bites host and develops to complete its life cycle.
Name: Raiwin Mothong Student ID: 6537495