1.How the mosquito can transmit the pathogen?
-The mosquito can transmit pathogens have three ways of transmission. Firstly, Vertical transmission that the pathogen can transfer from the mother mosquito to the daughter mosquito. Secondly, Horizontal transmission can occur from a female mosquito that gets the pathogen in her body from a human host, then the mosquito bites another human host, and the pathogen can be transferred to a human. Finally, Venereal transmission, the pathogen can be transmitted by mating from the sexual transmission that both of sex can be infected.
2.What tool and how to determine the malaria transmission?
-The tools that use to determine malaria transmission are vector capacity, and Entomological risk (Incidence rate ratio and Entomological Inoculation rate). Vector capacities have 6 domains to determine.
1. Abundance is about the number of mosquitoes in this area.
2. Host preference and host-feeding patterns and proportion are about the mosquitoes that prefer to bite animals or humans.
3. Reproductive capacity
4. Longevity is about the age of the mosquitoes
5. Dispersal or distribution is about the mosquito distribution at that time and place.
6. Vector competence or vector susceptibility is about the parasite that can be deposited in the mosquito (extrinsic incubation period of the pathogen in the vector) and the capacity of the mosquito can transfer the parasite to another host.
The next tool is the Entomological risk (Incidence rate ratio and Entomological Inoculation rate)
The incidence rate ratio use for comparing the ratio of risk in different areas depending on species of mosquitoes such as Pha Man has a lower IRR value than Farm huts that farm huts are a higher risk of Malaria disease than Pha Man. The entomological Inoculation rate is the index that shows the risk intensity in the area. The number of EIR shows the infective mosquito bites/person/month that the mosquitoes will bite the human when human go in the area that high risk of the Malaria disease.
Name : Didtawa Suttisak
student ID : 6537494